In our previous counter version, we had overestimated pipeline gas imports from Russia. As a result, we have revised down our estimate of the value of fossil fuel imports into the EU in the first two months of the invasion from EUR 44 billion to 39 billion, and the total value of Russia’s exports over […]
Starting from 17 May 2022, we have implemented a new methodology to estimate pipeline gas imports from Russia to various European countries. In the initial version of the counter, we used historical data to distribute Russian pipeline gas imports to various European countries. At the end of April, Russia decided to cut supply to Poland […]
COVID-19 control measures and increases in renewable energy caused a steep drop in fossil fuel burning in Europe in 2020. This led to an approximately 14% reduction in average level of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution, 7% reduction in average level of particulate matter pollution, and 4% in ozone levels, resulting in an estimated 37,813 avoided deaths from air pollution (95% confidence interval: 31,894 – 44,226) in Europe.
[Methodology note] Air pollution levels are generally determined by two main factors: emissions and weather conditions. The latter are known to affect air quality in various ways: dispersion, precipitation or the facilitation of chemical reactions. This impact of weather creates uncertainty when it comes to understanding the effect of policies on air quality, or, for […]